A coil spring is a mechanical device which is typically used to store energy and then release it, to absorb shock, or to maintain a force between contacting surfaces. They are made of elastic material that forms a spiral shape and returns to its natural length when unloaded. Under tension or compression, the material (wire) of a coil spring is subjected to twisting. Therefore, the spring properties depend on the shear modulus, not on the Young's modulus.
Helical springs can also be used as custom double torsion springs: In this case, the spring as a whole is subjected to torsion about its helical axis. Consequently, the material of the spring is subjected to a bending moment, ie a reduction or increase in the helix radius. In this mode, it is the Young's modulus of the material that determines the spring properties. Metal coil springs are cylinders made by winding metal wire around a shaped former to form a cylindrical coil spring.
Spiral coil springs have many applications, notable ones include:
A buckling spring in a computer keyboard, is a key switch mechanism in which the helical spring tensioned between the keycap and the pivot hammer bends or folds at some point in its downward travel, thereby providing the key for the keyboard operator. Provides audible and tactile feedback.
Mattress coils in innerspring mattresses The coils are primarily used in the core (support layer) of innerspring mattresses, which is their original purpose. In recent years, small microcoils have been used in the upholstery (comfort layer) of mattresses, mainly using coil cores (coil-to-coil construction), but sometimes other core types are also used. Mattress coils were introduced in the mid to late 19th century and are still popular in the 21st century, especially in the United States.
Spiral coil spring in automotive suspensions is coil compression spring that vary greatly in strength and size depending on the application. Coil spring suspension can be stiffer or softer depending on the vehicle being used. Coil springs can be mounted either with a shock absorber or separately. Coil springs in trucks give them a smooth ride when unloaded, and once loaded, the springs compress and stiffen. This makes the vehicle bounce less when loaded. Coil spring suspensions are also used in performance cars, allowing the car to absorb bumps and reduce body roll. In off-road vehicles, they are used due to their range allowing the use of wheels.
Coil Springs in Engines: Coil springs are used in engines. These springs are compression springs that play an important role in the valves that close the intake valves and allow exhaust gases to exit the combustion chamber. The spring is attached to the rocker, which is attached to the valve.
Coil springs in valve trains: tension and tension coil springs of a given material, wire diameter and coil diameter exert the same force when fully loaded; increasing number of coils only (linearly) increases free length and compressed/extended length.
The conical coil spring has better cushioning performance and can withstand larger loads. Scroll coil springs can store more energy and withstand greater loads, but the manufacturing process is more complicated. The performance of the concave coil spring is similar to that of the conical coil spring, and it is mostly used for cushions and mattresses. The cross-section of spring steel wire is circular and rectangular, etc., and the circular cross-section is the most commonly used.